Arch 443/646: Architecture and Film
Fall 2008

A Clockwork Orange
Stanley Kubrick, director


Discussion Questions:

Please answer the questions below. Use paragraph form. Your answer should be around 400 words. Email me your responses in Word .doc format to: I will be posting these each week after the class. You should be prepared to deliver your answer in class -- but paraphrase, do not read it. There are 29 students and we can take no more than 1 hour and 15 minutes for our discussions.

Stanley Kubrick created quite a few films that might have been suitable to the theme of this course...

last updated Tuesday, December 16, 2008 10:23 PM


1. Andrew Azzopardi

Compare the character of Alex and Joker from Nolan's Batman. How do they feed into the respective themes of madness in their respective films.

When comparing these two characters, Alex and Nolans Joker, one has to start with the role of reasoning. The joker is born out of his past trauma, which in turn is his motive for his actions against humanity, he is trying to transform the world into his disturbed vision of humanity: his actions are a direct action which is consciously chosen to commit. While when looking at Alex from A Clockwork Orange, he is composed and born out of a different set of conditions- his character has an inability to function in a society. Alex’s actions are not based around the concept of revenge against humanity, and have not been born out of society. His actions are of his inability to comprehend what he is doing, his actions are purely mechanical. The mechanism is shown throughout the film, in the acts he commits, he is devoid of any form of emotional trauma. How this plays into madness? It shows and contrasts different forms of madness, one that is a madness brought upon organically and one that is instinctual.



2. Tyler Bowa

Compare the character of Alex and Joker from Burton's Batman. How do they feed into the respective themes of madness in their respective films.

"Do the unexpected. No sense makes sense."

In Tim Burton’s Batman, the Joker feeds perfectly into the theme of madness within the film.    The Joker has lost his mind even before he has an accident where he falls into toxic waste that turns him into the lunatic with the green hair and the pale white skin.  The Joker dances around, sings, cracks wise jokes, kills and enjoys watching every minute of torture that he inflicts upon others.  These actions play perfectly into the theme of madness that is a plot-device to explain the way Gotham’s criminals and offenders act. 

In Stanley Kubrick’s A Clockwork Orange, Alex feeds perfectly into the theme of madness within the film.  Alex is a child of the near future, who is merciless and enjoys crime and torture stating that, “it was an evening of some small energy expenditures” to summarize his brutal actions.  He sings and dances around in a world somehow gone berserk, in which there are no real alternatives, only degrees of madness.  His actions play perfectly into the theme of madness that is so clearly addressed throughout the film.

When comparing Burton’s Joker to Kubrick’s Alex, it is clear that both are respectively spitting images of the madness that has become of their surrounding environments.  They act in a similar manor, both equally enjoy the same horrific experiences, and are arguably one in the same.


3. Martin Chow

Compare the dynamics of the "Droogs" with the supporting thugs for Burton's Joker character. How are they the same/different. How do they feed into the madness of the film?

Compare the dynamics of the "Droogs" with the supporting thugs for Burton's Joker character. How are they the same/different. How do they feed into the madness of the film?
Appearance-wise there are certain similarities between the Droogs in Clockwork Orange and the supporting thugs for Burton's Joker.  For instance, the thugs in Batman dress similar to their leader, also wearing hats and purple jackets to match the colour of the Joker's trench coat.  However, the Joker's superiority is evident in the green tie and handkerchief, as well as the make-up that underscores the reason for his current persona and his gang's existence.

However, there is no depth of character to the thugs, and they follow their master without much thinking, to the point of getting killed by their own guns.  It was not Burton's intention to develop them much further, as they are simply tools directed by the Joker to inflict chaos.  These thugs are generic bad guys who, with the promise of payment, can be made to do anything.

The Droogs dress similarly as well, but in this case their leader looks no different, the reason being that technically Alex is just one of them, the charismatic one among a group of “brothers”.  He has no authority aside from what his self-proclaimed leadership and what his personality projects onto the others.  Evidenced by some of the conflicts between him and his droogs, where the others demanded a “new way” that entails no longer picking on Dim, it is clear that Alex is only a leader as long as the others allow for it.

Sometimes Alex has to fight to maintain his dominance, by attacking his friends and cutting Dim's hand with a knife.  He took care to be “generous enough” not to cut through any nerves such that his slow-witted victim can heal and thus be subdued.  Alex is easily vulnerable to mutiny, as evidenced by the droogs' successful efforts to betray him.

These examples of rebellion and differences in viewpoints between the characters suggest a hint of individuality to the gang members, such that they seem more like real people and the viewer might wonder what circumstances might have brought them together.  Therefore, the relationship between the Droogs fully embodies the dynamics within a youth gang, while the Joker's relationship with his thugs is of a simpler, more cartoon-story nature.



4. Jamie Ferriera

Similar lighting. Difference scene! Compare.

The harsh blue lighting is used to convey alternating roles of the main character as both the perpetrator and the victim in both scenes. The first scene in particular, comes to symbolize the ever-impeding doom of the individual and his limitless manifestation of violence.  This symbolism is achieved by the characters occupation in only a small portion in the frame, while their shadows consume the larger ratio of the frame and even the victim himself to portray how violence is a natural instinct from within. This play with shadow represents the darker nature of man’s intentions, and is used again by Kubrick in the second scene to cast the same affect that violence can be inflicted both ways. Alex is now on stage, cast into focus of the blue light once again, but this time powerless and a victim to the will of the politicians and scientists sitting in the shadow.  Their behavioral program, which is violent in its own nature, victimizes Alex; making the actors on stage, symbols to the temptations that Alex can no longer act normally of his own will due to trauma.

Some other similarities in terms of composition, is that the victim is portrayed in the left of the frame crippled to the floor, whiled the perpetrator remains on the right, standing with power and authority. The use of very minimal background also isolates the viewer from any distraction, leaving them to focus closely on who ever may be illuminated by the light. The severity of the blue light, also symbolizes an interrogative approach to reveal or extract how violence occurs within the individual and its manifestation into physical torture in the first scene, and mental torture in the latter with Alex.

The low-key lighting suggests a world of depression and decay, which in Kubrick’s film is obviously violence. It becomes a dramatic tool to portray the atmosphere where there is an absence of law and order in the world, and the suffering created from it. This is actually spoken by the homeless person, who through song represents a time where the world was different and more innocent before he is beaten, and is confrontation of the young against the old.  Ironically this absence is also portrayed by the politician’s own intention’s and motive’s to neglect the lawful obligation of one’s individual rights, ignoring that Alex ceases to be a creature of moral choice. 



5. Meghan Galachiuk

How does the portrayal of Modernity feed into the feelings of madness in the introductory part of the scene? Is there something in the architecture that assists or sets up the scene better or differently than another type of interior might have? ie. had this been set in a creepy dark Gothic house, would it have been different?

Modernity feeds into the feeling of madness in the early part of this scene by skewing reality with clean lines and forced prospective that forces the viewer to reassess what they are viewing. There is a definite disconnection from reality, from nature. The scenes that came before this had a distinctly rugged, even crude edge to them. Then there was this scene, with its expressive colours and modern shapes. There is a forced sense of control, the sense that people are trying fit into something unnatural. For example, her chair has a lid, a completely irrational device and yet she is doing something quite regular, such as reading, in it. This reflects madness, a discontinuity of the people who inhabit here that doesn’t seem to be grounded in reality. The hallway with mirrors is another extreme example of a modern madness. That the architecture reflects inwards, trapped within reflections of its self. Again disconnected, almost deceivingly independent, projecting a false sense of security that will soon be shattered by the visitors at the door.

The modern clean edges, bright colors, and long rooms make the setting somewhat contradictory to the actions that are about to commence, yet at the same time not wholly unexpected. This inward looking self-protecting architecture almost merits the events that follow this scene. This home is independent of the world previously explored in the film. Which, upon this structure’s reveal shows a different mentality, almost in denial of this films world reality. This then allows the viewer to know, that with the arrival of the main character, whose imagery is decidedly bleaker, that this place is about to fall victim to the world that it has pushed out. Had the building be, for example, a gothic house, the main character would almost seem at home in an ultra-violent dilapidated setting. As opposed to the clean controlled forced lines of the set that Kubrick chose.

The architecture also reflects the state that the main character eventually finds himself in. The lines of the room and the hallway only dictate one direction of movement. Much like the way he cannot make decisions for himself in the second half of the film. The imagery is strong of a very forced, socially controlled world that has a madness of its own and that spawns the violent madness of the youth in the movie.



6. Sarah Hawley

Are Alex's parents surprising? How do they feed into your view of the insanity of this film. Do you think they are peculiar to Kubrick's view or respresentative of something larger?

Alex's parents are part of the surreal atmosphere created by the director; their actions and personalities are meant to fit within the parameters of 'parental figures' as befits the madness of the film. The viewer should not be surprised by the characters because their qualities help catalyst Alex's inappropriate actions. To believe in the creation of Alex's madness one would expect his parents to be emotionless and naive towards him. If his parents were portrayed as the 'common' authority figure, they would not support the insanity of Alex and would juxtapose the films shocking modern composition.

Just like every element in the film Alex's parents are particular to the director's vision.A Clockwork Orange was a radical movie for its time and every part of its composition including Alex's parents were part of the intended shock value of the director, Kubrick. This is not to say that Alex's parents do not represent a larger morality in the movie. Just like Alex's parents allowed their son to run wild through the city's crime, society also closed its eyes on madness by expecting criminal behaviour to change due to moral medical treatments. Although in the end society learns it's lesson and ends the experimental treatments, Alex's parents still welcome their madden, rapist, criminal of a son back into the home, and have always allowed him complete free-will. They, just like society had to learn to accept the ugly and surreal side of human nature. And in this sense Alex's parents do represent a larger message intended towards society's behaviour.



7. Fernie Lai

Compare the use of the "clown" type in Batman (Nolan or Burton) and Clockwork Orange? Why the clown as an evil character??

Clowns are symbols of goofy fun, seen as entertainment at settings involving children, but more often than not, it is also a symbol of evil. Used both in Clockwork Orange and the Dark Knight as characters of disturbances, clowns are portrayed as this nightmarish character that are the opposite of joy. Clown costumes consists an exaggeration of the facial features and body parts, the noses are red, the skin whiter, their mouth’s huge… which rather than being read as comical, this deformation of the face is just as likely to be read as monstrous. When you begin to process ones facial features, clown faces are an anomaly, a mask that has something to hide, invoking the presence of the unknown and something that is abnormal compared to what you understand, and people are generally afraid of what they do not understand.

In Clockwork Orange, the face that is often used by Alex and his droogs as a mask for mischief as they invoke violence on others as a tool to hide their identity and to prevent them from being caught is actually the mask of a Pulcinella , originated in the Commedia dell’arte of the 17th century, typically known as a morally ambiguous character. But is it suppose to function as a complete mask of identity, you can see that in the end, when he accidentally returns to the Mr. Alexander’s house, he is still recognized by the old man as the person that brought violence upon his home. Does the face of the clown have an alternate function? Or is it also acting as a mask of one’s own morals perhaps? Allowing them to enact their darkest fantasies under the mask.

In the Dark Knight, on the other hand, the face of the clown is to relate back to the face of the joker. You peal a mask to reveal the wearers identity, but even very early on in the film, there is a scene that clearly shows you that even if you peal back the joker’s mask, his identity is still unknown, remaining a mysterious character, therefore invoking fear. Clown masks are used in the initial robbery of the opening of the movie, but it was even more interesting when it was used as trickery in the latter scene where masks were put the hostages instead, a switch in costumes which nearly made the police shoot the hostages themselves instead of saving them. The joker would have loved the irony if he had succeeded.

Pulcinella, often called Punch or Puncinello in English, Polichinelle in French, is a classical character that originated in the Commedia dell'arte of the 17th century and became a stock character in Neapolitan puppetry.

His main characteristic, from which he acquired his name, is his extremely long nose, which resembles a beak. In Latin, this was a pullus gallinaceus, which led to the word "Pulliciniello" and "Pulcinella", related to the Italian pulcino or chick.

According to another version, "Pulcinella" derived from the name of Puccio d'Aniello, a peasant of Acerra, who was portrayed in a famous picture attribued to Annibale Carracci, and indeed characterized by a long nose. It has also been suggested that the figure is a caricature of a sufferer of acromegaly.[1]

Ever white dressed and black masked (hence conciliating the opposites of life and death), he stands out thanks to his peculiar voice, the sharp and vibrant of qualities of which contribute intense tempo of the show. According to Pierre Louis Duchartre, his traditional temperament is to be mean, vicious, and crafty: his main mode of defense is to pretend to be too stupid to know what's going on, and his secondary mode is to physically beat people. Actually Pulcinella is an archetype of humanity, with all its complexities and contradictions.


8. Eric Lajoie

Comment on Alex's relationship with these women. Is this critical for plot development? Would Alex have made a credible "villain" without this aspect of the story? How does the architecture play into (or not) the scenes?

Alex meets these two girls, seduces them with seductive licks of a popsicle (some charm) and then take them back to his place to have his way with them. Through this scene we begin to find out more about Alex. Before this we had only seen him as a careless thug who get his jollies out of hurting and robing people.   This sheds new light on Alex and we begin to understand his ability to manipulate, convince and charm the people around him. This adds more credibility to him as a villain because it make him more threatening if he also has a brain. The architecture plays into the scene because Alex is used to getting everything he wants, he controls his parents at home, and his gang of hoodlums. In this scene I feel like he is a "kid in a candy store" the architecture all around him is bright colours and shiny materials, all he has to do is pick what he wants and walk out with it.



9. Andrea Lam

How does the use of fast forward feed into the success of this scene in the film? How would it have worked differently if filmed in actual time? How does this feed into the theme of madness in the film?

By fast-forwarding this particular scene, it isolates it from the rest of the movie that unfolds in ‘real-time’ or even slow-motion, when he pushes them into the water. In order to best explain why fast-forwarding is so effective in the scene that unfolds in his bedroom, it is useful to also analyze 2 scenes later when they are walking outside and he pushes them into the water and cuts his comrade’s hand. This latter scene is extremely emotionally-charged and as the scene unfolds, his thought process can be traced through his slowed down movements and his menace can be much better understood.

Contrasting this is the scene I am analyzing, where Kubrick has fast-forwarded the action, almost making the viewer send him a silent ‘thank you’ for doing what  we would mostly-likely do regardless, which is fast-forward this scene. His reasoning for doing this is 2-fold. First of all, this scene is now memorable not only for its content but also for its delivery. It is the only scene in the movie that happens in a fast-forwarded manner. But at the same time, having rushed through it, the audience is almost left unscathed by its derogatory content. It is simply a blip in our memories, and the effective nature of this is in the parallel to how this scene unfolds in Alex’s minds as well.

His menace and madness are highlighted when Kubrick plays with such a constant as time. It is a regulating, expected pace that we’ve all grown accustomed to. He highlights Alex’s obviously deteriorated sense of values and his desensitization to sex and violence by speeding through a scene that is arguably a savoury moment. Instead of a romantic tryst, Alex is a part of a slightly comical, choreographed dance, simply going through rapid motions and mindless tasks. As human consciousness dictates, it is desired that things we find enjoyable and pleasurable are when we would like most for time to be more drawn out, but Kubrick takes all the emotion (save, alex’s madness) out of this scene. Alex’s madness is highlighted in the way that this interaction with the two girls is nothing but a sidetracked nuisance in his day- something that could have been easily skipped over and not given a second thought.  His numbness lends itself to painting a picture of the menace and monster he is.


10. Bi-Ying Miao

Sets are purposeful. Why this mural in this apartment lobby? Do you think it is credible? How would this part of the film read with the normal beige lobby walls?

The mural on the wall of Alex's flat block apartment lobby depicts grand, stylized figures of semi-nude men in various states of coordinated social labourings. It is intentionally located in this location because it is the threshold between Alex's home and the outside world. This mural visualizes the idealistic presence of state control to maintain order in. Simultaneously, the ideals of free will of individualism are missing from the two-dimensional and blank expressions of the painted figures. To further demonstrate this conflict between the two ideals, the scene shows this mural in a severely run-down apartment lobby. It is also apparent that a rebellious hand, perhaps Alex himself, has anonymously vandalized the mural, further emphasizing a clash between the state order and individual freedom to a point where both become corrupt in the film. In this way, the defaced mural is very credible as the threshold between society and the individual; state order and individual free will. In fact, it is the place where the reckless leader and his droogs gather to plot their evening of criminal madness, and ultimately set the tone for the interaction between the main character and his society.

Now, if the walls of the lobby were actually painted a normal beige wall, there would certainly be a disjunction between the two worlds talked about in the previous paragraph. The metaphor of vandalism on modern-industrial art used to parallel the criminal acts of Alex on his society's rigid structure will be lost and as a result, the scenes in the apartment lobby would have to forfeit th poignancy of the film's social backdrop, which paints a vivid image of the anarchy against modern illusions of order. This revolt against the grain of society is the driving force of Alex's actions and therefore, the mural in the lobby plays an integral part in propelling the plot and character development of the film.



11. Andrea Murphy

Comment on the use of music in both of these sequences as it relates to the sense of madness in the films.

In both Kubrick’s and Burton’s break-in scenes, the main characters choose to have music to accompany their misdeeds. It is not that there is music added into the background film, but that the character himself initiates the upbeat music when he begins his crimes. This alone is already an indicator that these men are not the average burglars or vandals: they are not afraid of being caught or recognized and so they act in ways which are abhorred by society.

The thing that makes these men seem more than just stupid (they are, after all, broadcasting their presence to the world while breaking and entering) is the music that they choose. Instead of music that might strike fear into the hearts of their victims, they choose upbeat tunes that are entirely unforeseen by their victims. This sense of unpredictability makes them come across as insane, and perhaps creates a greater sense of fear because nobody (not even the viewer) can truly anticipate what is going to come next.

The joyfulness of the music is also an indicator of the men’s insanity because it implies that neither character is truly disturbed by the atrocious acts which they commit in these scenes. Both desecrate things that a sane person would argue is sacred: priceless works of art and the bodily safety of a person in their home. The inappropriate smiling, laughing, singing, and dancing of the madmen while they show no remorse and no emotional connection to their actions are sure signs of a mental disorder as defined by mental health professionals today.
Such an unexpected juxtaposition of cheerful music to criminal offenses makes not only the victims afraid, but it makes the audience uncomfortable and creates a greater connection between the viewer and the victim. When the plot goes in a direction which is criminal, we anticipate eerie or maniacal music, but just like the victims; we are shaken when we realize that these villains aren’t even following the typical rules of movie villains. Nobody knows what’s going to happen next, and it generates a real discomfort in the audience as well as a lack of faith in the judgment of the director.

Through their own initiation of, and selection of music, the villainous characters in Batman and A Clockwork Orange create a sense of uneasiness in viewers. This creates doubt about the sanity of the director for creating such an insane character as the Joker or Alex.

A little research into Alex’s condition:



12. Morgan O'Reilly

Comment on the "head of gang" versus "member" relationship in both films. How do these feed into the sense of madness in the films?

Clockwork Orange

-In clockwork Orange the roles are reversed
-the followers are more opinionated
-upon first glance it is not evident which of the four hoodlums is the leader. This is only revealed when one is able to observe their personalities. Alex comes forward as having an extremely strong personality. He bullies everyone around including his parents.


-henchmen dressed all in black contrasting against their colourful leader


Both ‘gang leaders’ need their followers in order to maintain any sort of power.

Both gang leaders instill fear in their followers.

What is the quality that the leaders possess that makes them worthy of following?

It gives both of the leaders and the followers purpose

Both leaders share the trait of a menacing charisma that they use to get people, more specifically their followers to do what they want.  At the same time they will use force to get what they want.


This feeds into the sense of madness for a number of reasons. In batman, the fact that a man as insane as the Joker could attract so many followers really intensifies the sense of turmoil in Gotham city. Things are out of control.

In A Clockwork Orange the idea that the same guys that were joyously committing unspeakable acts in loyalty to their leader could become police officers, which are universally known as figures of autority.

Build up their egos


In Burtons Batman the Joker maintains a band of loyal followers, who commit a number of heinous crimes in his honour. These ‘follower’ characters are fairly unexplored and all it seems necessary for the viewer to know about them is that they will unquestioningly do the Jokers dirty work. The Joker, however, regards his followers as disposable and would not think twice about killing one of them if necessary. For this reason the followers seem to fear the Joker. One wonders what motivates the gang members to obey such an unstable and dangerous person that doesn’t seem to be concerned in any way about there well being.  There must be some degree of respect, which the ‘henchmen’ feel for their leader. The Joker could be seen to represent the aspirations of these nameless supporters, but with the power and capability to actually bring their dreams to fruition. Gotham City is a city in turmoil and a certain amount of hostility towards authority figures is expected. The Joker, with his wealth, his charisma, his intelligence and his lack of morals represents this hostility from a higher level in the status ‘ladder’ of the city. It might also be said that the ‘henchman’ are aimless and troubled people who have in part created the chaotic state of the city and that the Joker gives them a purpose. This idea really feeds into the sense of madness. The fact that a man as insane as the Joker could attract so many followers that would risk their lives for his insanity really intensifies the sense of turmoil in Gotham city and increases the menacing quality of the antagonist group.

In A Clockwork Orange the relationship between leader and follower is somewhat different. The viewer gets to know the individual personalities of the followers. They seem to be closer to the level of their leader. Unlike in Batman where the inferiority of the gang members can be easily seen in their differing wardrobes (the joker is dressed brightly, like a clown, while his cronies are dressed in black and fairly characterless clothing), Alex and his ‘droogies’ dress almost identically. It also appears as though Alex has more difficulty keeping his gang members ‘in line’. One wonders what qualities, makes one hoodlum rise above the others. It becomes clear that, like the Joker, Alex’s personality is strong; he is admired for his intelligence, his charisma and the fact that he has no moral limits. It is also for this reason that like the Joker, he is feared. The moment that goes a long way in creating a sense of madness occurs when the roles of leader and follower are reversed. Alex’s gang become police officers and get revenge on Alex from a new level of authority. The idea that these criminals who had devotedly committed themselves to the evil deeds of Alex could be given such universally respected positions in society is terrifying and all sense of reason is lost.

The most important characteristic of the "head of gang" versus "member" relationship in both films is the fact that both leaders need their followers and vice versa. While Alex would probably like to think that his friends are disposable, his social status would suffer if he didn’t have a band of deviants cheering him on. On the other hand it seems that to be one of Alex’s ‘droogs’ is also an indication of a certain social status. It may be considered better to be a frightened gang member than to not be a gang member at all. In the same way, if the Joker didn’t have countless evil helpers to carry out his elaborate schemes he would not be nearly as threatening. Once again, without the Joker, his followers would be without purpose or the ability to cause serious mayhem.



13. Sue Anne Tang

The architecture chosen for the prison is very different from the balance of the film. How does this feed into the presentatation?

The audience is introduced into the narrator’s world with a decadent club, whereas the prison is an austere monastic penitentiary. The prison is brightly lit with bare light bulbs arranged linearly, which affirm the notion of order and minimalism within it’s confines. Lines drawn into the ground create a spatial boundary between the levels of power. The axial layout and the symmetry in the prison architecture represent a rigid hierarchal structure to which the characters conform. The characters that inhabit the space are transformed by the architecture. As Alex enters the prison, he becomes a number. He removes his clothing and his independence in a sparse room where he is given the bare essentials. Space in the prison is shaped by the necessary elements, walls, doors, openings, ceilings and light. Colour and furnishings are kept at the minimum. Individuality is lost in the characters and the prison. Speech is deliberate and responses are curt. As a result of the bland architecture, Alex resorts to daydreaming of gory crucifixion surroundings. The perversity and deceptiveness of Alex’s character develops as the audience contrasts the settings of Alex’s vivid imagination against the ideology of the prison represented in its architecture. Although the prison environment symbolizes societal stability, it is evident that the prison warden’s mannerisms do not conform to the ‘new order’ of chaos and anarchy in reality. The publicized shouted speech and the emphasized walking movement of Alex and the prison warden as they enter the experimental science building seem ridiculous. In Alex’s narrative, there is a clear distinction between outside world and prison. This allows the plot to come full circle as Alex begins in his mad world, is reformed in the prison then returns to madness. If the prison architecture had been extravagant and flamboyant like the home of the writer or decrepit like the slums of the theatre, the audience would not have been drawn into character reformation. The prison architecture enables the belief that the ‘outside’ world had gone mad, whereas the prison is the symbol of structure. The contrast between the architectural atmosphere of the prison and ‘reality’ facilitates progression in the narrative and the characters through audience reflection.



14. Meredith Vaga

Comment on the suitability of the architecture chosen to represent the Psychiatric Institution?

Stanley Kubrick uses Brutalist architecture to represent the Psychiatric Institution in A Clockwork Orange. This architecture is very suitable on many levels, as it is able to both physically embody the Institution, as well as embody what the Institution ultimately stands for through to the overarching themes explored in the movie regarding the Ludovico Technique.

Firstly, on a purely visual level, the architecture is unadorned, stark, and ‘modern’ as a personification of the sterile environment.  The philosophy behind the Brutalist movement revolved around ideas of doing away with the old, the traditional, the bourgeoisie, and creating something that was modern and ‘honest’ with the services exposed; that together could create the new ideal society. This is reflective of what the Ludovico Technique proposed to do both to Alex and for society as a whole.  However, it is notable that Kubrick chose Brutalism over the other modernist movements: though all deal with the aforementioned ideologies, only the Brutalist buildings have obvious irregularities incorporated into the building system. In this way, the building foreshadows that something is off regarding the behaviour modification therapy.

The building itself is almost alien in the way it sits on the landscape; there are no ties to history, tradition, the environment. This serves as a reflection of what the Institution created with Alex, an already almost inhuman being, to a completely inhuman being.

This architecture is also quite apt in terms of the way it physically ages when compared against the way the behaviour modification therapy ‘ages’ over the film. The Psychiatric Institution, from what is shown in the film, seems to be heavily constructed from concrete. Concrete is generally perceived to be solid and secure, and has a sense of permanency about it; presumably something the Institution and the government would like to have mirrored in their organizations. Unfortunately, concrete does not age well: it is easily stained; it can crack; it is painfully simple for the average hoodlum to deface. These problems are evident in the effects of the Ludovico Technique on Alex and his ability to function and on society itself – in the way everyone begins to use Alex as a means to their ends.

This architecture is also suitable for the film when looking at the cultural context. A Clockwork Orange was released in 1971, during which there were polarized debates concerning the validity of modernistic ideals and ultimately the rejection of ‘modernity.’ As such, the architecture reflects first the debate in the film (and in society) regarding the ethics behind using such a technique to control crime etc. and then the rejection of behaviour modification by Kubrick (and Burgess.)

Finally, by choosing architecture in a modernist style, Kubrick is definitive in creating a world that exists in the future – though the architecture itself is not ‘futuristic’ rather very much a part of the present, it represents the modernist ideals regarding constant progress, moving forward, rejecting the old and obsolete, and thus firmly places itself in the future.  



15. Anna-Joy Veenstra

Police corruption is a fairly common theme in film. How does Kubrick's take on this differ from Burton's in creating a more dystopic version of madness?

In Burton’s Batman, it is told that Gotham City has fallen into the slum it is because of a mostly corrupt police department in league with the mob bosses. However, only one police officer, Lt Eckhardt is depicted as corrupt. This is shown as he accepts bribes from the criminal lords. Though it must be noted that he is never shown harming anyone physically. However, Eckhardt eventually pays for his two-timing as at the Chemical Factory Jack shots and kills him. Justice is served. Burton also provides police commissioner Jim Gordon as a role model for what the police department could eventually become. Thus he incorporates a balance of good versus evil in his film.

In Kubrick’s take on police corruption we see the whole department as brutal violent men that break many laws themselves. Kubrick takes the traditional keepers of law and order and makes them all accomplices to violence. When criminals are finally caught in a Clockwork Orange, the police will beat them up. An example of this is when Alex is betrayed by his droogs, the police force beat him up for hours. Alex’s own parole officer (or social worker), Deltiod, is also offered the opportunity to mistreat him and is seen spitting into his face. It can be assumed, as the viewers feel sympathy towards Alex, that the entire police force is just as bad as Alex and his droogs. This comparison is finalized when nearing the end of the movie, Alex is rescued by two policemen from the throws of the old and poor assaulting him. Only to discover they are two of his previous droogs, Dim and George. They then inflicted the same amount of violence upon Alex as when they rolled with Alex and mistreated members of the law-abiding society. They are just wearing a different uniform, a black one instead of a white. This creates a dystopic version of madness as there is no positive side of the world that might eventually come out on top. Kubrick tells his story completely within the boundaries of a totalitarian or environmentally degraded state.


16. Rui Wang

Compare the effectiveness and appropriateness of the use of location shooting in Clockwork as compared to constructed sets in Burton's Batman.

The on-site shooting in A Clockwork Orange is used as a technique to accentuate the absurdity of the main characters. Tim Burton’s Batman is a much less psychologically affecting because it is filmed on constructed sets which while complimenting the characters and general atmosphere well, does not emphasis madness well.
What Burton’s constructed sets do is give all the scenes a two-dimensional quality, meaning the characters seem to be acting on a stage, and the movie becomes viewed as a dramatic play. By using fantastical sets as well as cartoonish characters, the viewer accepts the entire movie as an artefact within itself, much like a comic book or animation. It becomes a fantasy that the viewer is safe from and is able to watch it vicariously.

Kubrick however, has no qualms about injecting each shot with a hyper-realism which gives his movies that unnerving quality they are famous for.  The real-world sets only make Alex’s vicious temperament seem more intense and disturbing. Much of what is fantastical about A Clockwork Orange is the extreme juxtaposition of the insane with the absolutely normal. It is a movie where victim and victimizer cannot be clearly distinguished. Just as in the sets, what is normal seems abnormal when much of the film seems to be focused on Alex’s madness. When the opening sequence at the milk bar and the culminating events of that first night end in a shot of Alex falling down on a bed at his parent’s house, it isn’t the actions he did that night which feels strange, but the fact that he went home like a normal teenager that is most off-putting.

This mix of reality and insanity heightens the deep tension that resides in this film. The psychological impact of the movie rests on making the audience believe in the plausibility of the plot. For a character as insane as Alex, the only way to make a story such as this plausible is to set it in real-world locations. Alex becomes nothing more than a character we might pass on the street. He embodies our natural human fear of strangers and strangeness. Only in a real location and within a real society can such a character affect our psyche.



17. Jane Wong

Compare the choice of architectural style for the interiors for each film. How do they feed into the sensibility of each story? Could they be transposed and still work?

The use of Art Deco for Batman clearly illustrated a machine aesthetic that would have been appropriate for its time to demonstrate and emphasize the power, monumentality and beauty of the growing technology. The use of Art Deco in places of intellect, such as the newspaper office, Vicky Vale’s apartment and the museum much reflected the type of person the space was to house. The Art Deco style reflected a substantiated grandeur that needed to be established above the slum-like streets of Gotham, and was effective at achieving this difference.

Similarly, in A Clockwork Orange, the interiors were set to reflect the dominating persona of the given space.  Where we see a sense of control, narcissism eclecticism in Alex’s room, a stark difference is made in the living and dining rooms of his parents’ apartment, that suggest a great confusion and disorder in psychological stability, which is affirmed by his mother’s attire and his father’s lack of coherency. At times, the sets help emphasize certain character traits by either exaggerating the condition, or providing a stark contrast.  White, orderly walls are used in places of higher culture and intellect, such as the writer’s house and the institution of the hospital. In places of suggestive culture, colour is used and overused

A transposition of the two interior sets would not work for either movie. While they are used as similar tools of contrast and emphasis, the overarching architectural settings differ greatly for each movie. Kubrick’s A Clockwork Orange is based in a 1960s utopian setting, whereas Burton’s Batman is based in a futuristic world, where Art Deco, celebrating the machine age, would be appropriate.


  18. Andre Arsenault

Beethoven. Why? How does the use of classical music contribute to the theme of the film?

19. Yoshi Hashimoto

Comment on the use of extreme close ups of faces in the film as this feeds into Kubrick's portrayal of madness in the film. How might this have been otherwise worked? Or, could it have been done better or differently?

Although people tend to have a variety of interpretations of what they see in an extreme close up, there are some universal reactions, especially when done in the manner executed by Kubrick.

Facial close-ups establish the importance of a character and help focus on the emotion which that character is probably feeling.  Almost all of the close-ups employed by Kubrick are grotesque or discomforting in nature.  Close-ups mimic the sensation of invading someone’s personal space, especially when during a moment of duress or any such similar extreme emotion.  Fair or not, it tends to be more stressful when it is of someone or something you do not find physically attractive.  It is not much of a coincidence that most of the characters in this movie are unattractive.

Kubrick is not afraid to ratchet up this nervous tension even further to exploit and drive home the scenarios focusing on madness.  It is natural to feel uncomfortable or even frightened by people in the throes of madness.  The zone of personal space becomes significantly wider, yet he forces the audience to get in even closer.  The soundtrack is appropriately synched to assault the senses further.    The effect is such that some people may even want to turn away.

There are other ways to portray madness and extreme emotion: brief flashes spliced in tightly with regular shots, or used overlays or reflections to soften the effect without eliminating it.  C.G., prosthetics or makeup to exaggerate features, voices, falsetto music track, embedding “crazy” mannerisms.

However, the intensity would have been lost, the Kubrick signature gone.  The genius of the production was to keep it raw- unflattering and believable.   Personally I feel it is an effect that works superbly, one of the main draws to the film.  



20. Elfie Kalfakis

Comment on the use of macro shots to manipulate the feelings of the viewer as related to the film.

A Clockwork Orange is set in a British Dystopia.  The setting is viewed in first person through the eyes of Alex, a mad teenager.  We’re introduced to Alex through a reckless act of breaking & entering and a rude attack an innocent couple.  We watch these acts through the eyes of the gentleman who witnesses his wife being raped. Following this scene, we see Alex and his friends in a bar, again through the eyes of baffled observers, who seem slightly peeved by the group.   The opening sequence sets the stage of Alex’s world of recklessness.  However, the remaining first half of the movie focuses on experiences through Alex’s eyes.  After the brutal beginning of the movie, there is a moment of solitude in Alex’s room where macro shots are used for the first time. 

Macro shots in film are extreme close-ups.  In A Clockwork Orange they instill a feeling of penetration in to Alex’s world; Alex’s psyche.  They are first used after we are introduced to Alex’s world, in order to manipulate our perception so that the audience’s focus is now through the lens of Alex.   The audience, as Alex, then follows in his dystopia and watches him perform a few more reckless and hedonistic acts.  In Alex’s final moment of madness, before his arrest, macro shots are used again.  The focus then is reversed, and the audience becomes the observer of Alex once again. 

The remainder of the movie revolves mostly around the intervention of Alex; parental, social and professional opinions of him.   Alex is a specimen.  But, what is morally conflicting is the audience cannot objectively examine Alex after having experienced his world in first person.  So, we are introduced to the brutality of Alex’s world.  We are disgusted.  We then become involved with the character, and fully understand the world he lives in.  We then revert back to observing his reality, but having the first person experience, as introduced by the macro shots, we become desensitized to the brutality.   Strangely enough, the audience is forced to feel empathetic.

I think that is what is most disturbing about this movie.  We experience a world of madness, but through the eyes of the madman.  So, the story opens a discussion about the state of madness, and how it is a reality that some may experience.  In that respect, the sympathy we feel throughout the movie, I think, is in some ways legitimate.   But, I’m not convinced by the portrayal of reckless acts of madness as ‘another brick in the wall’ so to speak.  Madness is a state which many experience on some level, but it’s potentially reckless repercussions shouldn’t be seen as trivial by society.  This is illustrated by Kubrick in the film’s conclusion, where Alex was ‘cured’ (reverted back to his state of madness) and glorified by public & political figures.



21. Elaine Lui

How does the enactment of revenge feed into the sense of madness in the film?

Stanley Kubrick’s ‘A Clockwork Orange’ written in 1971 represents madness in its cyclical violence of revenge. Thus revenge, the desire to see others suffer a worse fate then themselves, is driven by emotion and is considered harmful to society.

The enactment of revenge is carried out by the writer Mr. Alexander when he realizes the person who had crippled and left him a widower merrily sings in his own shower while he suffers so much loss. His face contorts in anger as he silently screams in anguish to himself. The emotions of frustration take over Mr. Alexander preceding the enactment of revenge as a calculated endeavour. Mr. Alexander’s friends arrive, sit around Alex – the culprit of Mr. Alexander’s past as well as the film’s protagonist – and question him as he eats. Poisoned wine leads the protagonist to pass out after revealing his suicidal tendencies to the music of Beethoven. Waking up to his weakness, the perpetrators calmly wait on the floor below for the protagonist’s demise. A panning shot follows the torture of the protagonist to the floor below; the accomplices stand in the background and wait calmly in darkened interiors while the seated antagonist grins to himself in satisfaction, surrounded by his method of torture, the music speakers.

Revenge is further presented before the described sequence when Alex was sent back into society ‘cured’ from his violent nature. He meets with the people he had inflicted violence upon and is senselessly beaten since the cure leaves him defenceless. Kubrick demonstrates through this movie the strong preying upon the weak and the moral issues that arise if one can make the weak strong.  Revenge is quickly taken by the ones who were once victimised by violence, becoming perpetrators of violence themselves.

This is the madness represented in the society Kubrick has created; a mad cycle of violence and oppression that only breeds more violent acts to satisfy vengeance.



22. Reggie Macintosh

Both Alex and Joker in Burton's film have a change of heart about the role of beauty/attraction in women in the respective films. Both can be seen as contrary to the more accepted mode of male appreciation of the female in Western culture. How do these relate to a sense of madness or reversal in the films?

To understand how the change in the role of beauty relating to women transmits to madness in both films we must first understand the cause of the subversion in both characters.

Alex’s character in A Clockwork Orange was one without moral centre, living only for the pleasure he could gain from the pain of others.  This, being the main theme of the film, was shown through various attacks and rapes against men and women respectively.  Immediately this can be categorized into the world of madness, as there are such a small percentage of people who would fall into this pattern of behaviour.  It was only through his reconditioning that Alex’s response to beauty and attraction to women subverted from arousal to physical illness.  The mad part about this was not that his desires were quelled by the reconditioning but that his own body physically punished him every time his thoughts turned to the perverse.  This occurrence was encouraged by acts of revenge from his victims, but it is also an accurate and appropriate reversal to his prime character flaw considering his extraordinarily violent tendencies to other people, especially women.  After his attempted suicide, which succeeded in killing his reconditioned self, Alex subverted back to his original responses to sexual stimulus, still lacking moral centre but without the attachment of physical pain.

Similarly to Alex, the Joker’s change of heart toward the beauty and or the attractiveness of woman was a direct link to external stimuli, namely his fall into a vat of acid.  Prior to changing from Jack Napier to The Joker, his appetite for beauty remained quite conventional if not covetous.  It was the accident though that both prompted the change but also amplified his character flaws.  The most obvious subversion of his view of beauty was his desire to disfigure the faces of women using the same acid that destroyed his own visage, then to cover the mess with a mask, similar to his new skin tone.  The madness of this is a simple reflection of the accident and resultant pain.  But in amplifying the overbearing, controlling nature of Jack Napier to the hysterical proportions of the Joker, a deeper reversal takes hold.  Initially, the Joker attempts to alter the appearance of everyone and everything around him that may be considered beautiful.  But in losing his first lover to suicide, his madness alters so that he must possess a woman and control her, if only to contain and control her beauty as if it were another mask over his own disfigurement. 

In both films the sense of madness and reversal toward conventional appreciation of woman’s beauty can be linked directly to the events that subverted the villains in the films.



23. Judith Martin

Clockwork and Burton's Batman both manipulate the face in ways that make us uncomfortable. Compare the ways this feeds into the feelings of madness or horror in the films.

The face being the most powerful expressers of human emotions with simple and subtle gestures one can denote pain, happiness, confusion etc.  In Stanley Kubrick’s Clockwork Orange and Tim Burtons Batman manipulation of the human face strengthens the themes of madness and fear. In both films the torturer/manipulator has the intention of altering the individuals status making them ‘better’ in the manipulators eye ultimately contributing to the sense of madness in the film.  
Alex in Clockwork Orange is a thug born from his environment of a phony, soul-less society.  Due to the first person perspective Alex is the only character that the audience has a chance to relate to and empathize with.  Although the criminal activities and lack of empathy Alex displays are disturbing, his charming disposition and youthful attractiveness has an appealing effect and ultimately the audience becomes mildly sympathetic to his point of view.  During the movie Alex is imprisoned and given the chance to participate in an experimental involving an uninterrupted viewing of abhorrent images and videos.  Alex is restrained to a chair and attached to a contraption that forces his eyelids open.   Previously Alex had sinister and devious facial expressions establishing him as evil and guiltless but manipulated Alex is forced to appear terrified with his eyes wide open.  The look of fear on Alex’s face parallels the intended result of the experimental treatment: to cure him of his lack of empathy.   Although Alex’s violent acts are more severe prison systems act of torture-as-cure is more disturbing and horrific because of the illogical form of treatment, and previously established empathy for Alex. 

The character of the joker is an icon for the criminally insane; he remains giddy after performing countless acts of terrorism in Gotham city.  The Joker in Batman deliberately scars the face of his mistress with the self-declared intention of creating art.  Evil is often said to be the exercise of power, the joker exercises his evil in the form of scarring the mistress’s face. The Jokers abuse of power could also be compared to the moment in Fight Club when Edward Norton’s character disfigures the face of a known ‘pretty boy’.  When asked about his intentions for doing so he replies, “I felt like destroying something beautiful.”   In both films the disfigurer reveals their desire for chaos through destroying beauty and thus heightens the sense of insanity in each film.



24. Derek McCallum

Comment on the 'procedure' and its impact on the reading of madness in the film.

The main protagonist in Stanley Kubrick’s Clockwork Orange is sent to an experimental behavior modification laboratory in exchange for receiving a reduced sentence in prison.  The experiments consist of being injected with a mysterious serum, and then being forced to watch films of extreme violence and perversity for hours on end.   The serum induced feelings of nausea and extreme discomfort, which the subject beings to associate with the scenes of violence being displayed before him.  After several sessions of this procedure, the subject will become sick at the thought of violence, and he is cured!

The procedure conjures feelings of madness within the film in different ways.  The first is the visceral reaction Alex has to it.  For the entirety of the film up to this point, Alex has always been very calculated, and generally quite in control of the situation – his emotions are always in check, and even when he does beg or cower it is mockingly so.  However during the procedure his screams and pleas to end it are entirely real and illustrate the tremendous effect the procedure is having on his brain.  Watching him squirm in his straight jacket, unable to turn his head or close his eyes, and beg for mercy, is indeed quite mad.  The steady-handed and sane lab assistant who meticulously moisturizes Alex’s eyes with a dropper for the duration of the procedure highlights his extremities even more.

Besides the emotional reaction to the madness of the procedure, the setting and situation add to it as well.   The scene appears to be in a regular-looking movie theatre, with a large screen in the front and a projection room in the back. However, the only person watching the film is doing so against his will while strapped in a white straight jacket.  The psychologists in white coats observing the procedure seem to mock the restrained garment Alex wears, while they observe him from the projection-room-turned-control-room.  Then there is the very technical looking head-piece worn by Alex, which seems to serve no real purpose other than to make the procedure look more complicated than it really is. 


  25. Sarah Neault

Everything in film is intentional... connect these to the development of the theme of madness in the film.

26. Lisa Rajkumar-Maharaj

Comment on the role of the church or religion in the development of the portrayal of imbalance in the film.

Religion in the film is represented primarily by the character of the priest in the state prison. His character stands beside the politician as the only major characters who interacts with Alex in a sensitive, one on one basis. The priest himself is the only voice of reason in the movie, that is most closely related to a perspective the audience might have. Religion helps to portray imbalance in the film by being a singular voice against the madness therein. The compassion and faith that the priest shows Alex, especially with respect to the new treatment, is a notable shard of light in the mess of madness imbibed in each character.

Perhaps the most poignant scene that shows imbalance in the film is in the library of the prison, where Alex is looking for blood and gore stories in the bible. His conversation with the priest following this, discusses the new treatment, expressing a more moralistic version of rehabilitation versus aggressive chemical treatment. The interest Alex shows in the treatment despite the largely rational arguments given by the priest emphasise the downward spiral of imbalance that will continue to unravel throught the film.

The other significant scene that portrays religion occurs after Alex is unveiled to the audience and is shown to be ‘cured’. While the audience in the film is impressed, we the audience are undoubtedly repulsed by the scene. The priest’s reaction is the only mirror to an outer understanding that the viewer can sympathise with.

Religion therefore in Clockwork Orange emphasises the overwhelming madness of the film by offering a rational contrast to the insane state and a criminal population.



27. Michael Taylor

Kubrick did all of his own severe angle shooting. How does this contribute to the feeling of madness in the film?

Kubrick uses these awkward, exaggerated camera angles to convey a sense of distortion throughout the film.  Depth of field is increased to inhuman levels and heavy emphasis is placed on the expression of the characters in focus.  The images seem to force a confused environment to the background and place great importance on the motions of the individual in the foreground whether (s)he crosses their arms, open their mouths, there are differing actions which represent the ideas of fear and madness to the individual.

The angles also encourage the audience to have some sort of empathetic human response to the characters in danger.  It is the realization of fear depicted through facial expression. 



28. Allison Janes

Differentiate between the artistical inference "madness", "obscene" and "sick" in cinema in reference to Clockwork Orange and Burton's Batman.

(same question as Allan's below - I want two opinions on this subject)

“Madness” – the state of being severely mentally ill, extremely foolish behaviour, a state of frenzied, chaotic behaviour.

“Obscene” – offensive or disgusting by accepted standards of moral behaviour and decency. – repugnant.

“Sick” - Suffering from or affected with a physical illness,  Mentally ill or disturbed. Unwholesome, morbid, or sadistic, Defective; unsound, Deeply distressed

In Burton’s Batman there is a clear differentiation between good and evil, sanity and “madness”. The society of Gotham City may be full of corruption, however the overall social values of the “good” characters are consistent with our own morals. Burton provides us - the viewer, with cause and effect relationships, a dichotomy between madness/evil and sanity/good. In Batman madness and sick behaviour are conditions that occur after something has triggered them. For instance the madness of the Joker is rooted in revenge.

Additionally, part of his condition could be associated with any “sickness” that occurred when he was exposed to the chemicals. When something is referred to as sick we understand that it is the deviation from the normal moral norms set up by the film. These are most often represented by the socially accepted behaviour of Vicky Vale or Bruce Wayne. 

However, in a Clockwork Orange the inferences of “madness” “obscene” and “sick” are not as easily differentiated from the normal social behaviour of the overall society portrayed. We see the film from the point of view of Alex. His narration and perspective are already distorted from our own reality - already appearing mad by communicating in a language that is disorienting to the viewer. We cannot find any particular reason for Alex’s madness or for that of his droogs.” However, we can understand that he is not a singular “sick” person, as the case with the Joker; rather he is part of an obscene and mad subculture, portrayed by the rival gangs, also practicing “ultra-violence” for thrills.

This anti-social behaviour appears extreme. However when we look at the dominant culture we begin to see that Kubrick is portraying a society that has vastly different moral values than our own. Erotica is routinely shown on the walls of households (Alex’s bedroom and the older woman’s house). It is normal and socially acceptable to view this type of imagery in everyday circumstances. In the interview with Kubrick he states that this is to project an image of a future that has different and looser moral standards than our own. In addition, the treatment by the scientists and doctors is extreme and cruel torture that is also perceived by the viewer as obscene and sick, despite the so-called good intentions.

Therefore, A Clockwork Orange depicts actions so vastly different from the social behaviours that the viewer is accustomed to, that they have no possibility of comparing good to evil, madness to sanity, sickness and health. Instead they are questioning what and who really are “sick”, “obscene” or “mad” and wondering how they got this way.


29. Allan Wilson

Differentiate between the artistical inference "madness", "obscene" and "sick" in cinema in reference to Clockwork Orange and Burton's Batman. (same question as Allison's above - I want two opinions on this subject)

MADNESS: is the overarching characteristic of the antagonist. It is how the character is seen in contrast to his environment.

“Batman” is set in an incredibly and obviously dystopic Gotham City, it is a social condition wherein it is expected that a villain will arise. But because the Joker must be established as the prime antagonist, he must be seen as being in direct contrast to his surroundings. And his actions as he descends further into madness must be balanced out with Bruce Wayne’s desire to maintain order in a “law-less” city. Fascistic, gothic and overly ornamented environments are augmented by colour and texture to indicate insanity. Therefore, Tim Burton is essentially inferring madness by placing an exceedingly anarchic character in surrounding which is highly articulated.
Inversely, Stanley Kubrick presents a character, which is an incredibly eloquent anti-hero, set against the reductive background of 1960’s, modern London. Because the madness of Alex in “Clockwork Orange” is then presented as being much more internal (highlighted through Kubrick’s use of a voice over narrative) it is much more extreme, and more potent than the Jokers. This is also intensified by not having a protagonist to counter Alex’s insanity. Each character in the film has a level of suspiciousness or unease attached to them. Only when Alex is briefly removed from that scenario and put in prison can he be seen as somewhat remediated. But even then, the traditional judicial system fails him in favour of a “modern procedure”. Madness is a product of the modern age.

OBSCENITY: is how the antagonist expresses his insanity in relation to the public.

            Burton suggests the Jokers obscenity by having the villain exist in a very cartoonish fame of mind. The haphazard natures of his acts are circumvented by the calculated methods of Batman. There is a direct and obvious personality contrast separating Good from Evil.
Obscenity in “Clockwork Orange”, although also articulated through gratuitous violence, is also steeped in sexuality. When considered against the backdrop of the modernist and chic victims of his major crimes, and against the audience that would be watching the film it heightens the visual impact of the rape scene and of the murder. All the victims are demised in some manner by the paraphernalia of their life styles

SICKNESS: is how the general public then labels the antagonist; as a reaction to or a rationalization of his actions

            In Batman, sickness is portrayed primarily as a physical malaise. Because we are able to witness the transformation of Jack into the Joker, through external means, there is a level of empathy that can be applied to the character. He is in fact mad, but it was preventable. Alternatively in Kubrick’s film, there is never any sense of remorse for the downfall of Alex, and his sickness is labelled in a much more political construct. He is remediated but not cured, and the



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